PANTOGRAPH UNIVERSAL GAS CUTTING MACHINE- MECHANICAL PROJECT

PANTOGRAPH UNIVERSAL GAS CUTTING MACHINE- MECHANICAL PROJECT

SYNOPSIS

This project namely PANTOGRAPH UNIVERSAL GAS CUTTING MACHINE is designed and fabricated by us is mainly used to cut M.S plates in to any shapes.  It is a most viable and economic project among the other projects what we have decided to do.  The project has been innovated by means of initiating the various ideas from our project mates which make us to design and fabricate the machine in a right manner.

This low cost and high valuable equipment which was not available in the market make create a huge demand if it is introduced to the market.  The application of the project is found to be wider.  The machine is simple and compact and is easy to operate.  Even a lay man can understand the principle of this machine and can operate without any risk.

INTRODUCTION

This machine is fully manual and hence there is no need for power consumption.  Cost of operation is less which leads to more economical.  This kind of machine is used in all most all fabrication industries where there is a need to cut the M.S. plates which may be require for various production purposes.  

Further this machine can be modified and can be converted in to engraving machines, pantograph copy milling machines by means of replacing the nozzle by an engraving tool and milling cutters.

WORKING PRINCIPLE

The pantograph universal gas cutting machine is manually operated which is used for cutting heavy mild steel plates in a short duration which can not be performed by other machines.  The working principle of this machine is found to be very simple.  The entire machine is fabricated using welding process.  It is necessary to mention the working principle for any type of machines.  This machine works under the principle of a mixture of an oxygen and acetylene gas which was stored in the cylinder.  This oxygen and acetylene gas which was stored in the cylinder was mixed to an appropriate ratio and then this mixture of gas is made to pass through a hose pipe made up of GUN METAL.

The gas which passes through the hose pipe enters the nozzle which was found to be fixed in the nozzle holder.  The nozzle is nothing but a small opening and when the gas enters in to a nozzle expansion takes place.  The volume occupied by the gas in the nozzle increases and it flows through the opening.  This gas was ignited.  Now a blue flame can be seen from the nozzle torch.  The intensive of the flame can be increases or decreased by regulating the flow of oxygen and acetylene gas from the cylinder with the help of regulator.  The pressure of both the gas can also be controlled by the help of a pressure regulator.  A nozzle assembly holder is found to be fixed on one side of the link.

PANTOGRAPH UNIVERSAL GAS CUTTING MACHINE
PANTOGRAPH UNIVERSAL GAS CUTTING MACHINE
The entire nozzle assembly is made up of gun metal.  It consists of two cylindrical pipes of uniform size made up of gun metal.  At the bottom the cylinder pipe, a nozzle is found.  There is a controlled unit found at the top of the nozzle assembly.  Three knobs are found which is perpendicular to each other. One knob is used to control the pressure of oxygen and other knob is used to control pressure of acetylene.  Correct proportion of oxygen and acetylene gas required for gas cutting is to be selected.  This oxygen and acetylene gases are stored in separate cylinder and they are transferred to the open end of circular pipes through rein forced nylon pipes. 
 Now this oxygen and acetylene gases is mixed and passes through the nozzle.  A blue flame is produced at the bottom the nozzle.  The thickness of this flame can be reduced or increased by varying the proportion of the oxygen and acetylene gases.  Two circular pipes are found in nozzle assembly, one for passing oxygen and another for acetylene gas.  Between these two pipes a threaded rod is formed.  The entire nozzle assembly can move vertically upwards and downwards with the help of rotating a knob on either direction (clockwise or anti-clockwise).  This knob is fixed to the nozzle holder.

The movement of the nozzle assembly vertically upward and downward depends upon the thickness of the metal to be cut. A nozzle is small opening through which the mixture of gases is delivered in the form of a gas flame.  Now the metal can be cut in the form of straight way, in any shapes like circular, rectangular, triangular or  any irregular shapes like cams, manifold flanges etc..  Any unsymmetrical shapes can be easily cut.  In order to cut the metal in above shapes a template is required.  This template is fixed on the template holder which is found to be in a circular shape.  

PANTOGRAPH UNIVERSAL GAS CUTTING MACHINE- MECHANICAL PROJECT
PANTOGRAPH UNIVERSAL GAS CUTTING MACHINE- MECHANICAL PROJECT
On the surface of the template various shapes like rectangular, square, circular, triangular, ellipse etc are formed.  They are shaped in the form of grooves what ever shapes we required must be grooved on the template as a pathway for the movement of the spring loaded tracer pin that is a spring loaded tracer pin which is fixed at the extended portion of the link is moved manually in the groove found on the template which helps to cut the material in to required shape.  When this spring loaded tracer pin moved along the groove the nozzle holder which is fixed on one side of the link is also found to be moving in the same manner as the spring loaded tracer pin moves. The job to be cut is fixed on a job holder which is found is fixed on a cross frame which acts as a base.  The height of template can be adjusted by means raising the template holder with the help on an external threaded handle.  Job holder can be moved and can be positioned at any angle as per our convenient for cutting the material. 
 Templates can be used in two ways both internally and externally.  That is when the spring loaded pin slides along the external surface of the template the metal will also be removed in the shape of the direction in which the template pin is moved.  The adjustable link is found to be sliding along the guide ways of the main link.  This guide link can be fixed at any position in the main link.  The flexible link assembly helps the operator to move the nozzle holder in any direction.  A link assembly consists of guide link, left side link, right side link and front turning link.  Nozzle holder fixed at the left side of the link.  There is also provision for fixing the nozzle holder, in the right side link as well in the front turning link.  A circular bush is found at the four corners of the link on both the upside and downside makes the links to move freely. 

 That is in a flexible manner.  The main link on which the guide link moves is supported by a cylindrical stand and is fixed on a stand by the help of a collar.  The main cylindrical stand is found on the cross end of the c-channel frame which acts as a base for an entire machine.  The cylindrical stand is fixed stand.  The template holder which holds the template is fixed by a double built rectangular supporting pipe which is welded to the one of the frame found opposite to the cylindrical stand.

The direction of the movement of the nozzle can be adjusted by help of changing the direction of movement of spring loaded tracer pin.  As the machine works in a simplest way even with out using any power before operating a machine setting of a job and marking has to done. After setting the job a free error trial can be done by moving the spring loaded pin along the grooves for the required shape to be cut. After trial is over the oxygen and acetylene gas is allowed to flow from the cylinder to the required proportions of the metal in the form of flame. Hence by passing gas through the nozzle, is used to cut the metal to a required shape.

ADVANTAGES
1. It is a faster process.
2. Setting of machine is easy.
3. It reduces the fatigue of the worker.
4. Machine looks compact in size, so it can be carried from one place to another place.
5. The process is most economical.
6. Instead of using electric power this machine is manually operated there is no cost for power.
7. The pantograph gas cutting machine is used to cut the materials like mild steel plate in to any shapes like cams, manifold flanges.
8. It is possible to cut the material odd any thickness by means of adjusting the flame.

DISADVANTAGES
1. There is possibility for explosion.
1. It is very dangerous to operate.
2. Care should be taken for mixing the Oxygen and Acetylene gas to require propositions.

APPLICATIONS
1. This machine can be used almost in all types of industries.  (Large, small, medium scale industries).
2. This machine is mainly used in fabrication oriented industries.
3. It can also be used for construction purposes, construction of dams, ship building yards and in air craft manufacturing areas.
4. The material can be removed at any shape like oval, rectangular, ellipse, square, circular, pentagon, hexagon shapes etc.  

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