Construction And Working Of Centrifugal Pump | Parts Of Centrifugal Pump

Construction And Working Of Centrifugal Pump | Parts Of Centrifugal Pump 

Introduction: 

Centrifugal pumps are the most widely used of all the turbo machine (or rotodynamic) pumps. This type of pumps uses the centrifugal force created by an impeller which spins at high speed inside the pump casing.

Principle: Its principle work on Centrifugal force.

CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP: 

Centrifugal pump is classified as the following:-

1. Stationary components

2. Rotating components

Construction And Working Of Centrifugal Pump
Construction And Working Of Centrifugal Pump 
1. Stationary components of the centrifugal pump are the following:

a) Casing: – It is an air tight passage surrounding the impeller. It is designed in such a way that the kinetic energy of the water discharged at the outlet of the impeller is converted into pressure energy before the water leaves the casing and enters the delivery pipe.

 Types of Centrifugal pump casing:-

1) Volute casing: – It is spiral type of casing in which area of flow increase gradually. The increase in area of flow decreases the velocity of flow and increases the pressure of water.

2) Vortex casing: – if a circular chamber is introduced between casing and the impeller, the casing is known as vortex casing.

3) Casing with guide blades: – the impeller is surrounded by a series of guide blades mounted on a ring know as diffuser.

b) Suction pipe: – 
The pipe whose one ends is connected to the inlet of the pump and other end dip into water in a sump.

c) Delivery pipe: – The pipe whose one end is connected to the outlet of the pump and other end is involved in delivering the water at a required height.

2. Rotating component of the centrifugal pump is Impeller.

Impeller: – It is the main rotating part that provides the centrifugal acceleration to the fluid. Classification of impeller:

a) Based on direction of flow:

1)  Axial-flow: – the fluid maintains significant axial-flow direction components from the inlet to outlet of the rotor.

2)  Radial-flow: – the flow across the blades involves a substantial radial-flow component at the rotor inlet, outlet and both.

3) Mixed-flow: – there may be significant axial and radial flow velocity components for the flow through the rotor row.

b) Based on suction type:

1)  Single suction: – liquid inlet on one side.

2)  Double suction: – liquid inlet to the impeller symmetrically from both sides.

c) Based on mechanical construction:

1) Closed: – shrouds or sidewall is enclosing the vanes.

2) Open: – no shrouds or wall to enclose the vanes.

3) Semi-open or vortex type.

Working Of Centrifugal Pump: 
Water is drawn into the pump from the source of supply through a short length of pipe (suction pipe). Impeller rotates; it spins the liquid sitting in the cavities between the vanes outwards and provides centrifugal acceleration with the kinetic energy.

This kinetic energy of a liquid coming out an impeller is harnessed by creating a resistance to flow. The first resistance is created by the pump volute (casing) that catches the liquid and shows it down.

In the discharge nozzle, the liquid further decelerates and its velocity is converted to pressure according to BERNOULLI’S PRINCIPAL.

EFFICIENCY OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS:-

Mechanical efficiency: – It is ratio of the impeller power to the shaft power.

Hydraulic efficiency: – It is ratio of the manometric head to the Euler head.

Volumetric efficiency:- It is ratio of the actual to the theoretical discharge.

Overall efficiency: – It is ratio of the water power to the shaft power.

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