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Design And Manufacturing of Briquette making Machine

Design And Manufacturing of Briquette making Machine

Abstract
Briquetting of the carbonized agricultural residues represents one of the possible solutions to the local energy shortages in many developing countries. It constitutes a positive solution to the problem of increasing rates of desertification in many areas worldwide. Agricultural residues are not attractive as a household fuel source for urban areas because they are very bulky and have low energy intensity. Also, to eliminate the smoke generation when burning agricultural residues requires processing it by carbonization before being used as a house-hold indoor fuel. Previously investigated, briquetting machines lacked high productivity and were of complicated designs. The present study puts forward a machine of simple design which could be manufactured locally in Sudan and of much higher productivity. The local Sudanese briquetting experience was overviewed, studying all the alternative available options and the market potential. 

Introduction:
Biomass briquetting is the densification of loose biomass material to produce compact solid composites of different sizes with the application of pressure. Briquetting of residues takes place with the application of pressure, heat and binding agent on the loose materials to produce the briquettes.
Following are the advantages of briquette
• This is one of the alternative methods to save the consumption and dependency on fuel wood.
• Densities fuels are easy to handle, transport and store.
• They are uniform in size and quality.
• The process helps to solve the residual disposal problem.
• The process assists the reduction of fuel wood and deforestation.
• Indoor air pollution is minimized.

Two different types of densification technologies are currently in use. The first, called pyrolizing technology relies on partial pyrolysis of biomass, which is mixed with binder and then made into briquettes by casting and pressing. The second technology is direct extrusion type, where the biomass is dried and directly compacted with high heat and pressure. Setting up the briquette production unit raw material should be locally available. The raw materials for biomass briquetting can be:
• Agricultural residues (husks, cob, stalks, leaves, stems, shells, sticks)
• Invasive plants 
• Waste from bio-product industries like sawmills, plywood industries, furniture factories.

Methodology and Experimental set up

Main parts used in project
• Screw for press 
Size: 
  1. Length: 200mm 
  2. Diameter: 30mm
  3. Material: N8
• Hopper
  1. Upper size: 200 mm
  2. Lower size: 40mm
  3. Height: 150mm
• Motor
  1. Type: D.C. 12 Volt
  2. RPM: 30 Per/min
  3. Torque: 3NM
• Drive
  1. Chain and Chain sprocket
  2. No. of theet: 18
• Briquette Size
  1. Shape: Round
  2. Length: 60mm Cutting 
• Briquette Cutting Mechanism
  1. Pneumatic Cylinder: 
  2. Dia. 40mm 
  3. Stroke: 100mm
  4. Pressure: 10 Bar
  5. Control Valve: solenoid operated Direction control valve
Design And Manufacturing of Briquette making Machine
Design And Manufacturing of Briquette making Machine
Pressure Compaction
Biomass densification represents a set of technologies for the conversion of biomass into a fuel. The technology is also known as briquetting and it improves the handling characteristics of the materials for transport, storing etc. This technology can help in expanding the use of biomass in energy production, since densification improves the volumetric calorific value of a fuel, reduces the cost of transport and can help in improving the fuel situation in rural areas. Briquetting is one of several agglomeration techniques which are broadly characterized as densification technologies. Agglomeration of residues is done with the purpose of making them denser for their use in energy production. Raw materials for briquetting include waste from wood industries, loose biomass and other combustible waste products. On the basis of compaction, the briquetting technologies can be divided into:
  1. High pressure compaction
  2. Medium pressure compaction with a heating device
  3. Low pressure compaction with a binder.
In all these compaction techniques, solid particles are the starting materials. The individual particles are still identifiable to some extent in the final product. Briquetting and extrusion both represent compaction i.e., the pressing together of particles in a confined volume. If fine materials which deform under high pressure, are pressed, no binders are required. The strength of such compacts is caused by van der Waals’ forces, valence forces, or interlocking. Natural components of the material may be activated by the prevailing high pressure forces to become binders. Some of the materials need binders even under high pressure conditions.

Special Features 
• No inverter - D.C. motor connects directly to solar array
• Rugged construction
• Simple installation and maintenance
• Highly reliable

Applications 
•  In Village making the Pallet

Advantages
• No conventional grid electricity required
• Long operating life
• Highly reliable and durable
• Easy to operate and maintain
• Eco-friendly
• No fuel cost- uses abundantly available free solar energy

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