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What is Forging and Its types ,Advantages

Introduction To Forging: 

Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces. The blows are delivered with a hammer (often a power hammer) or a die. Forging is often classified according to the temperature at which it is performed: cold forging (a type of cold working), warm forging, or hot forging (a type of hot working). For the latter two, the metal is heated, usually in a forge.

forging machine operation
Forging machine Operations

What is forging? (Define forging)

  1. Forging is a plastic flow of metal by the application of compressive forces in which size and shape is changed permanently without failure.
  2. Forging is a deformation process in which work is compressed between two dies using either impact or gradual pressure to form the part 
Materials suitable For Forging :
Any material (Metal or Alloy) which can be brought to plastic stage through heating can be forged.

  1. Aluminium and  its alloys
  2. Copper and its alloys
  3. Magnesium and its alloys
  4. Tungsten and its alloys
  5. All types carbon steels
  6. Stainless steels

Types Of Forging machine:

types of forging machines
types of forging machines
What are the properties of the forgeable materials?

1. Strength

2. Malleability

3. Resistance to fatigue

4. Durability

5. Shock or bending resistance

6. Machinability


  • Ability of material to get forged by the external pressure of hammer or press is known as forgeability. Forgeability increases with temperature up to a point at which a second phase,e.g. from ferrite to austenite in steel, appears or if grain growth becomes excessive.
  • Metals which have low ductility have reduced forgeability at higher strain rates, whereas highly ductile metals are not so strongly affected by increasing strain rates.

Advantages of Forging:

1. Uniformity of qualities for parts subject to high stresses & loads.

2. Weight saving

3. Close tolerance

4. Less machining

5. Smooth surface

6. Speed of production


1. High tool cost

2. High tool maintenance

3. No cored holes

4. Limitations in size and shape.

1 comment:

  1. Forging is a metal shaping process by application of compressive forces using dies and tools.
    Following are the various types of Forging

    1. Hot Forging– Forging process carried at a temperature above the recrystallization temperature of the metal is called hot forging. This process is done to prevent strain hardening during deformation
    2. Cold Forging– Forging process carried at a temperature below the recrystallization temperature of the metal is called cold forging. This is done for simple shaped components preferably softer metals/alloys. Compared to cold forging, components produced by hot forging type are more ductile.
    3. Press Forging– In press forging, a continuous pressure or force is applied, unlike the near-instantaneous impact of drop-hammer forging. In press forging, deformation of complete work-piece occurs while in drop-hammer forging, usually only the surfaces of the work piece in contact with the hammer and anvil deform; the interior of the work-piece remain relatively unreformed.
    4. Drop Hammer Forging – It is a forging process where a hammer is lifted and then dropped onto the work-piece to deform it according to the die-shape.

    There are two types of drop forging

    a. open-die drop forging and
    b. closed-die drop forging

    In Open-die forging, the work-piece is not fully enclosed while in Close-die forging, the work-piece is fully enclosed.


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