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Difference between Conventional and Non-Conventional Machining Process

Introduction to Conventional and Non conventional Machining 

Manufacturing processes can be broadly divided into two groups and they are primary manufacturing processes and secondary manufacturing processes. The former ones provide basic shape and size to the material as per designer’s requirement. Casting, forming, powder metallurgy are such processes to name a few. Secondary manufacturing processes provide the final shape and size with tighter control on dimension, surface characteristics etc. Material removal processes are mainly the secondary manufacturing processes.

Conventional machining example
Conventional machining example
Material removal processes once again can be divided into mainly two groups and they are “Conventional Machining Processes” and “Non-Traditional Manufacturing Processes”.
Examples of conventional machining processes are turning, boring, milling, shaping, broaching, slotting, grinding etc. Similarly, Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM), Ultrasonic Machining (USM), Water Jet and Abrasive Water Jet Machining (WJM and AWJM), Electro-discharge Machining (EDM) are some of the Non Traditional Machining (NTM) Processes.

non-conventional machining process which is defined as the process in which materials are removed from the workpiece in most accurate and effective mannar. This is also termed as new machining process. There are different setup for this process. They are:

3. Plasma arc machining process

4. Electron beam machining process

5. Electrical dielectric machining process

6. Chemical milling

7. Laser beam machining process

Laser Cutting
Laser Cutting-Non Conventional machining 
Difference between Conventional and non-conventional machining processes are :

  1. Conventional machining process involved tool wearing as there is a physical contact between the tool and the work piece. In non-conventional process, this is not the case.
  2. Non-conventional tools are more accurate and precise than the conventional tool.
  3. No noise pollution is created as a result of non-conventional methods as these tools are much quieter.
  4. Tool life is long for non-conventional processing.
  5. Non-conventional tools are very expensive than the conventional tools.
  6. Non-conventional tools have complex setup and hence requires a skillful operation by expert workers, whereas conventional tools do not require any special expert for its operation and are quite simple in set-up.
  7. Spare parts of conventional machines are easily available but not for non-conventional machines.
  8. Extremely hard material can be cut easily with the help of non conventional machining but for conventional machining raw material should be less hard than cutting tool.
  9. In conventional machining: Material removal takes place due to application of cutting forces – energy domain can be classified as mechanical. In Non Conventional Machining :Mostly NTM processes do not necessarily use mechanical energy to provide material removal. They use different energy domains to provide machining. For example, in USM, AJM, WJM mechanical energy is used to machine material, whereas in ECM electrochemical dissolution constitutes material removal.
  10. Non Conventional machines can handle very complex jobs as compare to Conventional machining.
  11. In Conventional machining because of scrap and chip formation more wastage of material .In case of non conventional machining no chip formation hence less scrap.

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