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Automatic Pneumatic Water Pumping System Mechanical Project



The aim of the project is pneumatic operated water pumping system. Radial plunger Pneumatic Water pumping system are reciprocating pump in which the piston is provided for the pumping action. The piston is reciprocated with the help of a pneumatic cylinder and solenoid valve. There are two cylinders are used in this project, one for pneumatic cylinder and another one for hydraulic cylinder. The output quantity of the water is varied by the timing control unit.


A pump is a Mechanical device which converts mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. This pump is classified into two types;

i. Positive Displacement and
ii. Non-Positive Displacement pump

In positive displacement pump is the one, in which the liquid is transferred positively from one stage to another stage by the to and fro motion of the plunger or piston of the pump.

In non-positive displacement pump the liquid is transferred by the centrifugal force. This force is cause due to the rotary movement of an impeller. In this, our project, pneumatic water pump is of positive displacement pump. The salient features of a pneumatic water pump have been retained in our project model and this has been achieved with great care.

Due to high precision work involved in producing pneumatic water pump besides higher cost these pumps are not widely manufactured by most of the industries. The very name itself indicates that it works with the help of a piston. This piston is reciprocated with the help of a solenoid valve and electronic timing control unit.


Initially starting with air compresses, its function is to compress air from a low inlet pressure (usually atmospheric) to a higher pressure level. This is an accomplished by reducing the volume of the air. Air compressors are generally positive displacement units and are either of the reciprocating piston type or the rotary screw or rotary vane types. The air compressor used here is a typically small sized, two-stage compressor unit. It also consists of a compressed air tank, electric rotor and pulley drive, pressure controls and instruments for quick hook up and use. The compressor is driver by a 10HP motor and designed to operate in 145 – 175 PSI range. If the pressure exceeds the designed pressure of the receiver a release value provided releases the excesses air and thus stays a head of any hazards to take place.

Automatic Pneumatic Water Pumping System
Automatic Pneumatic Water Pumping System
The stored air from compressor is passed through an air fitter where the compressed air is filtered from the fine dust particles. However, before the suction of air into compressor a filter process take place, but not sufficient to operate in the circuit here the filter is used. Then having a pressure regulator where the desired pressure to the operated is set.

Here a variable pressure regulator is adopted. Through a variety of direction control value are available, a hand operated solenoid Valve with control unit is applied. The solenoid valve used here is 5 ports, 3 positions. There are two exhaust ports, two outlet ports and one inlet port. In two extreme positions only the directions can be changed while the Centro ore is a neutral position and no physical changes are incurred. The 2 outlet ports are connected to an actuator (Cylinder). The pneumatic activates is a double acting, single rod cylinder. The cylinder output is coupled to further purpose. The piston end has an air horning effect to prevent sudden thrust at extreme ends.

  • The compressed air from the compressor reaches the solenoid valve. The solenoid valve changes the direction of flow according to the signals from the timing device.
  • The compressed air pass through the solenoid valve and it is admitted into the front end of the cylinder block. The air pushes the piston for the cutting stroke.
  • At the end of the cutting stroke air from the solenoid valve reaches the rear end of the cylinder block. The pressure remains the same but the area is less due to the presence of piston rod. This exerts greater pressure on the piston, pushing it at a faster rate thus enabling faster return stroke.
The non-return valve is fixed to the hydraulic cylinders two side (Four numbers).
The stroke length of the piston can be changed by making suitable adjustment in the timer.


  1. Since the Pneumatic water Pump is more efficient it is used for pumping the water or oil mostly.
  2. Domestic Applications
  3. Industrial Applications


Even if all the other pumps are similar in use the Pneumatic water pump is more advantageous than the other pumps.
1. This is of compact in size
2. Less Maintenance is enough
3. The oil or water pumped is of higher pressure
4. Quite running and smooth operation is achieved.
5. Higher efficiency
6. Full efficient positive displacement pump
7. Effective working principle
8. It does not have any Prime mover, like electric motor related to the unit.
9. As the air is freely available, we can utilize the air to pumping the water and hence it is economical.
10. Less Maintenance


  • It is costlier than the other types of pump because of compressor unit.
  • Less efficiency when compressed to other device.
  • Leakage of air affects the working of the unit.

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