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Computers In Manufacturing System | Latest Manufacturing Trends

Computers In Manufacturing System

Need Of Use Of Computers In Manufacturing Sector
Factors  governing increased  productivity, more accuracy, greater  flexibility of  shapes, and reduced manufacturing costs are forcing the manufacturing concerns to use computers in design, manufacturing and other allied functions of industrial activities. 

With  an  increase in the need for quality manufacturing along with the factors such as short lead time and short product lives and increasing consumer awareness as regards the quality of the product, it is becoming increasingly important for the manufacturers to initiate steps to achieve all these. 

The developments in microelectronics in the  recent past have made higher computational ability available at a  low  cost.  Therefore, it becomes imperative that  manufacturing takes advantage of the  availability of low cost and  also using yet more  powerful computers.

 Computers have been in use in manufacturing industries since 1960. Initially they were in  use only  in supportive functions such  as inventory control purchase accounting, etc.  In to day’s time, computer applications have progressed considerably in all areasof design and manufacturing involving CAD and  CAM. 

Today, computers are  not  only  used in  manufacturing but  they play  also  an  important role  in all manufacturing related activities such  as  business or financial management, factory level  production management, CIM  technologies,CAD,feature and solid modelling, and CAM, manufacturing information, manufacturing  system. The important sub-activities of industrial  environment have been  identified to  support with the use of computer in the manufacturing industries. 

These are  given  as  under:

1.  Business or  Financial Management
1.    Costing
2.    Sales and  Marketing
3.    Purchase Order Control
4.    Vendors
5.    Subcontracting
6.    Personnel.

2. Factory Level  Production management
1.    Planning
2.    Production Management
3.    Manufacturing production scheduling (MPS)
4.    Material requirement planning (MRP)
5.    Just in  time (JIT)
6.    Bill  of Materials
7.    Capacity Planning
8.    Inventory Control.

3. CIM  Technologies
1.    Computer Networks
2.    System Design and  Analysis
3.    Distributed Processing
4.    Database Management Manufacturing
5.    Modelling and  Simulation
6.    Expert Systems
7.    Quality Engineering.

4.  Computer Aided Design (CAD)
This  area is  also  known Feature and  Solid  Modelling
1.    Variational and  Parametric
2.    Modelling
3.    Computer Graphics
4.    Graphic Standards
5.    Inter-graphics  exchange specification (IGES)
6.    Data exchange file  (DXF)
7.    Manufacturing Robot  Programming
8.    Design  Analyses  Tools
9.    Programming
10.     Finite element modelling (FEM)
11.     Finite element analysis (FEA)
12.     Simulation
13.     Mechanisms
14.     Test  and  Analysis
15.     Design  Tools  Mechanical
16.     Hydraulic, Electronics, etc.

5.  Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM)
This  involves activities related to manufacturing information and  manufacturing system which  are  given  as  under—

Manufacturing Information
1.    Generation
2.    Process Planning
3.    Production Planning
4.    Computer numerical control (CNC)  part Programming
5.    Robot  Programming
6.    Coordinate measuring machine (CMM)  Programming.

Manufacturing System
1.    Production Activity
2.    Machining
3.    Assembly
4.    Material Handling
5.    Storage
6.    Production Control
7.    Loading
8.    Scheduling
9.    Balancing
10.     Capacity Planning
11.     Quality Control.

computer application in manufacturing sector
Use Of Computer in manufacturing Sector
One   of  the   most   important  components for  getting various benefits associated with computer applications in manufacturing is the common databases associated with all  aspects of manufacturing. In fact,  all the  modules in the  CAM would  actually be sharing the  database created in  any  module. Any  module would  be  able  to  modify  the  data as  required for  that particular application. 

This  approach reduces the  work  involved in  maintaining the  product database and   at the  same time includes the  latest  modifications for  any  aspect related to manufacturing. In  contrast to  the common database approach, it is  possible that sometimes individual modules in  the  production aspects may  be  taken from  different vendors. In  this case  care  need  to be taken that information is properly transmitted between the  modules and the  data updating in all the  modules takes place  properly and  at the  right time. 

CAD/CAM/CIM
CAD/CAM/CIM
Some  of above mentioned manufacturing activities are  controlled by computers. 
These activities are  commonly identified using the  following terms.
1.    Computer Aided  Design (CAD)
2.    Computer Aided  Engineering (CAE)
3.    Computer Aided  Design And  Drafting (CADD)
4.    Computer Aided  Process Planning (CAPP)
5.    Computer Aided  Tool Design (CATD)
6.    Computer Aided  Manufacturing (CAM)
7.    Computer  Aided  Numerical Control (NC)  Part Programming
8.    Computer Aided  Scheduling
9.    Computer  Aided  Material Requirement Planning, etc.
10.     Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS)
11.     Group  Technology (GT)
12.     Computer aided Testing (CAT).


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