Lathe is one of the most versatile and widely used machine tools all over the world. It is commonly known as the mother of all other machine tool. The main function of a lathe is to remove metal from a job to give it the required shape and size. The job is securely and rigidly held in the chuck or in between centers on the lathe machine and then turn it against a single point cutting tool which will remove metal from the job in the form of chips.
For performing the various machining operations in a lathe, the job is being supported and driven by anyone of the following methods.
1. Job is held and driven by chuck with the other end supported on the tail stock centre.
2. Job is held between centers and driven by carriers and catch plates.
3. Job is held on a mandrel, which is supported between centers and driven by carriers and catch plates.
4. Job is held and driven by a chuck or a faceplate or an angle plate.
The above methods for holding the job can be classified under two headings namely job held between centers and job held by a chuck or any other fixture. The various important lathe operations are depicted through Fig. (a), (b) and (c).
The operations performed in a lathe can be understood by three major categories.
(a) Operations, which can be performed in a lathe either by holding the workpiece between centers or by a chuck are:
1. Straight turning
2. Shoulder turning
3. Taper turning
5. Eccentric turning
6. Thread cutting
14. Spring winding
|Fig. Lathe Operation -Parting Off,Turning, Threaded Tool, Chamfering|
(b) Operations which are performed by holding the work by a chuck or a faceplate or an angle plate are:
3. Internal thread cutting
7. Counter boring
8. Taper boring
|Fig. Lathe Operations- Facing,Form turning,Radius Turning,Forming,Taper turning|
(c) Operations which are performed by using special lathe attachments are:
|Fig. Lathe Operations- Knurling,Facing,Parting Off, Drilling, Reaming, Boring|